Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that occurs in approximately 7.3 million patients in 2021 in the Seven Major Markets. About 90% of cases are plaque psoriasis, which is characterised by "plaques", or raised, red areas of skin covered with a silver or white layer of dead skin cells referred to as "scale" (see figures below). Psoriatic plaques can appear on any area of the body, but most often appear on the scalp, knees, elbows, trunk, and limbs, and the plaques are often itchy and sometimes painful. At least 40% of plaque psoriasis patients have plaques on their scalp, which presents a challenge for drug delivery, as the creams and ointments typically used to treat psoriasis on other body areas are not appropriate for use on the scalp. About 15% of plaque psoriasis patients have plaques in their intertriginous regions, which are particularly difficult to treat because these areas tend to have thinner, more easily irritated skin, and are more prone to steroid-related side effects, especially skin atrophy (thinning), striae (stretchmarks) or telangiectasia (spider veins). Approximately 10% of plaque psoriasis patients have plaques on their face, which similarly has thinner, more easily irritated skin and greater vulnerability to side effects. Treatment of facial plaques is also complicated by proximity to the eyes, and the consequent heightened safety concerns, specifically increased risk for development of cataracts and glaucoma due to steroid exposure. One in three plaque psoriasis patients has plaques on their elbows and knees, which are frequently treatment resistant. Even with biologic therapies, plaques on the elbows and knees are often the last areas to resolve.

Psoriasis patients are generally characterised as mild, moderate, or severe, with approximately 31% experiencing a mild form of the disease, 39% experiencing a moderate form and 30% experiencing a severe form.

In addition to the direct clinical challenges of psoriasis, it has been documented that patients with plaque psoriasis suffer substantial psychosocial impacts from their disease, including: social stigmatisation, feelings of rejection and shame, guilt, impaired sexual intimacy, discrimination in the workplace, difficulty finding employment or working outside the home, financial hardships, increased work absenteeism and reduced productivity.


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